## Graphical Presentation Of Tabular Data – Pie And Doughnut Charts (Part 5 of 5)

This is the fifth and final article in a series aimed at showing the benefits of presenting tabular data in a graphical format; this one considers the use of pie and doughnut charts. It looks at when they should be used, how they are constructed and the benefits that they can provide.

The Pie Chart

This is a graphical representation chart, which is circular in format. It is named a ‘pie chart’ because it resembles a pie which has been cut into slices. The pie represents the whole or 100% of the survey sample and each of the slices into which the pie is subdivided, which make up the whole pie, illustrate the quantity proportion of the pie that each element of the survey represents.

This simple statistical chart can be very colourful, as each slice can be drawn as a different colour to ease identification. They are also very easy to produce. Pie charts enable the viewer to easily compare both the individual sizes of different slices of the pie and each slice’s proportion of the whole pie or sample. However, it is not always easy to compare slices across two or more pie charts or where many of the elements of a sample are very small when compared with the largest element, because their representative slices are very thin.

Using the child’s height survey example which has been used throughout this series of articles, a pie chart can be constructed thus:

Height Range(m.) / Frequency(No.) / Percent(%) /Central Angle(degrees)
1.0m.-1.1m. / 0No. / 0% / 0.0degrees
1.1m.-1.2m. / 1No. / 4% / 14.4degrees
1.2m.-1.3m. / 4No. / 16% / 57.6degrees
1.3m.-1.4m. / 9No. / 36% / 129.6degrees
1.4m.-1.5m. / 7No. / 28% / 100.8degrees
1.5m.-1.6m. / 3No. / 12% / 43.2degrees
1.6m.-1.7m. / 1No. / 4% / 14.4degrees
1.7m.-1.8m. / 0No. / 0% / 0.0degrees
Survey Totals 25No. / 100% / 360 degrees

To generate a pie chart for the above set of data, you have to extend the original table. For each of the height range frequencies it is necessary to calculate the percentage of a full pie chart’s circle that that element’s slice will be represented by and hence its central angle. For example, using the 1.2m to 1.3m height range above, the frequency percentage is calculated by dividing the frequency 4 by the survey sample size 25 and multiplying by 100, which equals 16 per cent. The central angle of the 1.2m to 1.3m range pie slice is then calculated by multiplying that slice’s percentage 16 by 360 and dividing the result by 100 which equates to 57.6 degrees. A short cut to this answer is to multiply the frequency (4) by 360 and divide by the total survey sample size (25) which omits the percentage stage of the calculation.

When all the pie chart’s frequency central angles have been calculated, then a pie chart can be generated by drawing a circle of a diameter best suiting the surveyor. Each height range frequency is then represented by a slice with their respective central angle. When all the slices have been drawn, they will make up a full circle of 360 degrees and may be given a different infill colour for improved presentation and identification.

The Doughnut Chart

The doughnut chart is very similar to the pie chart, the difference being that instead of the chart being a solid circle representing a ‘pie’, the chart is in the form of a hollow doughnut. The calculation for each slice of the doughnut is exactly the same as the pie chart. The main difference is in the graphical representation of the chart in that the doughnut can be given either a two or three dimensional visual representation by using both internal and external edge shading to the doughnut figure. It is also possible to pull a slice of the doughnut in or out in order to emphasise a particular slice.

This is the fifth and final article, introducing the reader to simple graphical presentation of tabular data. Many spreadsheet software packages now include programmes to generate many or all of the graphs and charts highlighted within these articles. It is therefore always a good idea, and indeed good practice, to try to display your survey data in as many different chart and graph formats as possible. You may then determine and choose which ones both best demonstrate what your survey is about, and what your conclusions are; and also which are the easiest for your audience to view and interpret.

## Help Me Putt – 3 Reasons Why The Tour Links Putting Green System Is The Ultimate Present For Him

Do you find it a headache to think of what present to get for the significant man in your life every time a special celebration is drawing near? If he is an avid golfer intent on improving his golf game and often spends more time at the golf club than you would like, you should consider investing in a Tour Links Putting Green System. This putting mat system is an excellent way of keeping him at home more often. This article will highlight the top 3 reasons why the Tour Links Putting Green System is the ultimate present to buy for him this year.

Reason #1: He practices putting at home instead of at the golf club.

15 minutes of efficient putting practice each day is all it takes to improve the putting stroke. You need to invest time consistently to practice in order to see results in a short period of time. It is not as effective to spend 2 hours bent over the golf ball because you will probably finish the practice session with a sore back and neck.

Having a putting mat at home allows your man to save time travelling to and from the practice facility. This leaves him with more time to spend with you, and maybe even helping out around the house. He will no longer have the excuse of needing to practice at the putting green because the Tour Links Putting Green installed at home is of a realistic surface and putting speed to that of the golf course.

Reason #2: Allow him to feel good by introducing you to the basic aspect of golf in the comfort of your home.

Your man will be very excited when you show interest in the sport that he is crazy about. If he has been urging you to pick up golf for some time, this is your way to give in to his request without even having to leave home. Putting is really quite simple and you will feel a sense of satisfaction when you see the ball drop into the cup.

Allow him to feel smart by being able to teach you a new skill. Instead of feeling resentment towards him heading down to the golf course so often, you can turn putting into a shared activity between the two of you. Spending time doing something together can help to improve the bonds between a couple. See your relationship get better over time.

Reason #3: Tour Links putting mats are beautiful to look at and make

Guests and friends who visit your house will be amazed by the beautiful green installed and you can host putting competitions at home. This will be a fun activity for all ages to participate. Because the material used to make Tour Links putting mats are engineered to withstand all weather conditions, you can leave it outdoors without worry.

This putting mat system is the best present for the man in your life that loves to play golf and can’t get enough of the sport. If you don’t already own one at home, then it is time to consider purchasing one for his and your own benefit. Installing this putting mat means that he will be at home more often practicing and improving his putting stroke. You will also be able to spend more time with him and enjoy the sport that he loves so much, improving your relationship. Finally, beautify your home with this high quality putting mat system that is easy to care for indoors and outdoors.

## Do You Want to Be Happy? Find Your Inner Happiness Through Present Moment Awareness

What does living in present moment awareness really mean?

Being there for your life. Focused, connected, listening to and paying attention to and communicating with yourself and everything and everyone around you.

Living one moment at a time. Which is the only way we really can.

Not being stuck in the past.

Or worried about the future.

Remember 3 years ago, this moment your living right now is the future you were talking about.

Three years from now this same moment will be the past. Do you still want to be stuck reliving that moment.

So, living in present moment awareness means, living life one moment at a time, in awareness, in a non-striving, non-judgmental, open, non-reactive state. And then letting it go.

For me one of the many benefits of the practice of mindfulness has been non- attachment. What do I mean by that? Being able to fully get that you are you no matter what else happens in and around your life.

So even if you lose your job, you’re still ok, you’re still you. Or if you lose your current home, your still okay, you’re still you. Or if circumstances in your family change, you’re still okay, you’re still you. Same with your health, you’re still okay, you still are you.

In other words, you’re not really defined by any of those things. Because they are not really you. You are still you no matter where you live, no matter what job you have, no matter what is going on with your family, no matter what is happening with your health. You are always you.

And accepting that life is impermanent. Constantly changing. Different from one moment to the next is another benefit from the practice of mindfulness.

## Remember Your Past, Enjoy Your Present

Feel unwanted? Suffering from an addiction? Being bullied, victimized for reasons you are not aware of? Anger issues? Possibly having problems in your relationship. Or do you feel something is lacking, even though you have everything? If this is you, then why not consider Regression Therapy?

If you have tried to find answers to these issues and still can’t come up with a solution, KEEP READING! Regression Therapy may hold the answers you are looking for.

Regression therapy is said to bring someone out of the darkness and confusion they have been living in, and shedding some light on their life. It involves taking a person back through their lives and bringing them to terms with things that have happened. Despite it being a form of hypnosis, the person is fully conscious during this.

One may experience their current life throughout adulthood, through adolescence, and childhood, including the time when they were still in the womb.

Past Life regression therapy on the other hand is slightly different from all of these. What makes it so different is that rather than recalling this life, a person will recall one that they lived previously.

This thought about having previous lives is a hard thought for many to grasp, but actual evidence exists that our present life is only one of several that we have lived.

In some cases people have even talked about being soldiers in wars; an official of some kind in a foreign land; some have even reported on being hunting for prey in the Stone Age with another person who winds up actually being their partner in present day.

It is very interesting when people start to recall memories from the past. It is fascinating when that memory can be verified using written state or parish records.

Although not reported very often in the mainstream media there are actually thousands of well documented reports of children that are able to recall their past lives in great detail. They have also met and recognised people that they had been related to in their past life.

The experiences that we have had in these past lives can help us understand the way that we are now – there is a much better perspective to be gained on one’s behavior with this kind of insight on the past.

Faulty Thoughts is a term that is used widely in the regression therapy community. These are negative thoughts that a person has carried over from their past life. These thoughts can have an adverse effect on a person’s life, which is never good.

Naturally only one person can fix this. That one person is the actual person who came up with such thoughts. The faulty thoughts can be offset by trying to release that energy and by transforming the negative energy into positive. There are a number of ways in which this may be done, from repaying karma, to forgiving those who have wronged you.

Forgiveness is in the biblical and the scripture reads, ‘Do unto others what you want others do unto you.’ Karmic repayment, from the word ‘karma’ changing one’s negative attitude into a positive attitude.

If a person is able to carry such things out, then it would be possible to re-pattern their energy fields. They can do this by practicing things such as tranquility, care, and other things that might be considered positive.

Although it could be really tiring at times, Regression Therapy is said to be life changing. Most of the clients testify that going through the procedure resulted into a positive attitude, a renewed outlook in life, and a stronger individuality.

To get to this place of peace and renewal, clients have to be committed to the process and be willing to come to truly know themselves and change their expectations for their lives.

‘Regression Therapy,’ a fascinating subject. And should you seriously contemplate trying it yourself either out of desire or interest, it would be a journey into discovering who you were in a previous life or to help you solve present day problems.

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